The center of retina is calle macula. In AMD edem and hemorrahge occur at macula to cause distorted vision.
Smoking is the strong risk factor of AMD.
AMD causes the blurry vision and sometimes black spot in the center of vision.
It sometimes progress rapidly
Intravitreous injection of anti vascular endothelial growth factor
Very thin fibrous membrane develops macula area due to aging.
ERM causes distorted vision and sometimes progresses slowly.
Surgical removal of membrane is effective to stop the development of this disease.
But distorted vision will not be cured completely.
So surgery should be done before symptoms becomes severe
We perform outpatint surgery of ERM
After surgery cataract will progress rapidly so usualy cataract surgery is performed at the same time
Diabetic Retinopathy causes retinal hemorrhage. As it progresses vision will decrease. The left is the early stage and the right is severe so that sometimes surgery is necessary.
Photocoagulation (The right is the photo after photocoagulation)
Ptosis often occurs by aging, hard contact lens wearing and accidents. Surgery is the only method for this disease
Trichiasis is also caused by aging. In most cases the cilia of lower lid touch the cornea causing pain and redness of the eye. When it is sever, surgery is recommended.